- To cause to be unable to think with clarity or act with intelligence or understanding; throw off.
- To cause to feel embarrassment.
- To mistake (for another): confused effusiveness with affection.
- To make opaque; blur: "The old labels ... confuse debate instead of clarifying it” ( Christopher Lasch).
- To assemble without order or sense; jumble.
- Archaic To bring to ruination.
- To make something unclear or incomprehensible: a new tax code that only further confuses.